123 Agreement Nuclear
Mexico`s nuclear program dates back to the 1950s, with research conducted at universities across the country and the creation of the Comisién Nacional de Energéa Nuclear (CNEN) by presidential decree in 1956, convinced that peaceful nuclear, energy and non-energy applications could contribute to Mexico`s scientific and technological development. In 2016, the Mexican and U.S. governments announced a cooperation agreement on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. It was part of a wide range of bilateral agreements and initiatives on topics such as education, trade, travel, climate change and environmental protection, energy cooperation, health and security. Therefore, the agreement must be considered as one of the various components of North America`s functional integration. The agreement builds on the existing limited cooperation between the United States and Mexico under PSA and creates the conditions for the continuation of U.S. civilian nuclear trade with Mexico. The agreement also provides for broader support between the United States and Mexico by encouraging the exchange of good practices in the development of nuclear policy and the training and development of human resources in the nuclear sector. Section 123 of the U.S. Atomic Energy Act (AEA) of 1954 sets out the conditions and defines the process of significant nuclear cooperation between the United States and other countries. For a country to reach such an agreement with the United States, that country must commit to a series of nine non-proliferation criteria. Since January 15, 2019, the United States has concluded 26 nuclear cooperation agreements that govern nuclear cooperation with 49 countries, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Taiwan. Changes to this section are likely to make it more difficult for future administrations to become independent when such agreements are concluded.
And while negotiations with Saudi Arabia are likely to stall for now, the United States is likely to face the Kingdom`s continued interest in nuclear technology research, as well as other major powers, such as China, in order to preserve and advance U.S. non-proliferation goals in the coming years. Given these developments, this position provides a short basis for these regimes and their role in the non-proliferation regime. Perhaps the irony is that the United States helped build Tehran`s first nuclear reactor in 1967, after an agreement of 123 was reached on the authorization to export technology and materials to Iran. In addition, the United States provided Iranian scientists with training and expertise, helped the Shah create the Iranian Nuclear Energy Organization, and supported its plans to build 20 reactors in 20 years, before the 1979 Islamic revolution abruptly ended nuclear cooperation.